Archive for the ‘Research Paper’ Category

What grapevines do when everybody is sleeping?

Posted: March 30, 2014 by vineyardofthefuture in About the project, News, Research Paper

New study shows results of night-time water losses for grapevines.

By Sigfredo Fuentes

moon

Abstract:

Night-time water uptake (Sn) mainly corresponds to stem and organ rehydration and transpiration, the latter through stomata and cuticle. Nocturnal transpiration is uncoupled from photosynthesis, therefore it contributes to reduce water use efficiency (WUE). Night-time grapevine physiology was measured on field grown grapevines (cv. Shiraz) under partial root-zone drying (PRD) and deficit irrigation (Exp 1), on potted vines (cv. Tempranillo) (Exp. 2) and on potted vines (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) on a progressive drought treatment in the glasshouse (Exp. 3). Sap flow probes using the compensated heat pulse method (cHP) were installed in vines (Exp. 1 and 3). Night-time gas exchange measurements were performed for Exp. 3. Other vine water status monitoring methods used were: midday stem water potential (Ψs) for all experiments, and abscisic acid (ABA) concentration monitored from leaf sap for Exp. 3. Results showed that Sn was parabolically correlated to Ψs measured on the previous day for all treatments and cultivars. Two distinct zones where vines exhibit different night-time behaviour within the Ψs vs Sn parabolic relationships were identified for all experiments. The differences between the two identified areas were related to the water status conditions of the vines:  i) non-water stress conditions (0 < Ψs < -1.0 MPa); ii) water stress conditions (-1.0 MPa < Ψs < -2.0 MPa). Furthermore, levels of water stress were negatively correlated to concentrations of leaf sap ABA, which helped to explain the parabolic curve found for cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

Link to full article, click NighttimeVines

Moderate wine consumption and depression

Posted: September 4, 2013 by vineyardofthefuture in News, Research Paper

 

glass

Alcoholic beverages are widely consumed. Depression, the most prevalent mental disorder worldwide, has been related to alcohol intake. We aimed to prospectively assess the association between alcohol intake and incident depression using repeated measurements of alcohol intake. “One drink a day, preferentially wine, may help prevent depression,” said lead researcher Dr. Miguel Martinez-Gonzalez, chair of the department of preventive medicine and public health at the University of Navarra, in Pamplona.

Link to full article: 1741-7015-11-192

 

 

By Sigfredo Fuentes1* , Roberta De Bei2  and Stephen Tyerman2

1 University of Melbourne, Melbourne School of Land and Environment, Victoria 3010, Australia

2 School of Agriculture Food and Wine and Waite Research Institute, The University of Adelaide, Plant Research Centre,

Waite Campus, PMB 1 Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia

* Corresponding author: sfuentes@unimelb.edu.au

Recent research has boosted understanding of the dynamics of night-time transpiration and water

rehydration of plants and grapevines, with the aim of obtaining amelioration strategies to maximise

water use efficiency for crops under a challenging climate.

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Read full article here: Nighttimegrapevines

 

 

 

Dr Sigfredo Fuentes (Lecturer in Wine Science. The University of Melbourne – Australia)

Full article: Press here: ChileriegoInterview

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Winetech

WORKSHOP: New and Emerging Technologies for your Vineyard

Convenors: Dr Sigfredo Fuentes and Dr Roberta De Bei

Many people think that the ‘I, Robot’ vision from Isaac Asimov is not too far away from reality.

We have seen everyday more and more media coverage of the use of drones and robotic

technology for research in viticulture and agriculture in general. Automated systems can carry

instrumentation that enables the acquisition and analysis of data using contact, short and

long range remote sensing techniques. This workshop will explore the state of the art of

instrumentation and research to implement these systems in viticulture and winemaking.

Some of the technologies and instrumentation that will be covered range in applications from

the field to the cellar. The structure of this workshop will be in the soil – plant – atmosphere

context.

COST: AUD$ 150

WEB LINK: http://awitc.com.au

Blue_Moon_-_Hand-held

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NEW PAPER:

Fuentes, S., Mahadevan, M., Bonada, M., Skewes, M. and Cox, J.W. 2013. Night-time sap flow is parabolically linked to midday water potential for field grown almond trees. Irrigation Science. DOI: 10.1007/s00271-013-0403-3.

LINK: Night-time sap flow is parabolically linked to midday water potential for field grown almond trees

Similar results were found for nocturnal water uptake in grapevines from cultivars: Shiraz, Tempranillo and Cabernet Sauvignon.

Fuentes S., De Bei R., Collins M., Escalona J.M., Medrano H., Tyerman S. 2013. Night-time responses to water supply in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) under deficit irrigation and partial root-zone drying. Agricultural Water Management (Submitted).

Recent research has helped to break the paradigm stating that C3 and C4 plants do not transpire at night-time due to complete stomata closure. It has been shown that plant water losses by transpiration at night-time can reach levels between 10-60% compared to day-time depending on the level of aridity and water stress. Since night-time transpiration is not coupled to photosynthesis it contributes to decrease water use efficiency. Furthermore, for non-water stress situations, night-time transpiration is highly correlated to vapour pressure deficit. Therefore, considering that climate change models have forecasted that night-time temperatures will increase at a higher rate compared to diurnal temperatures, night-time transpiration might be exacerbated in future global warming scenarios. Considering these new insights from research, it is worrying that night-time transpiration has not been considered in evapotranspiration models neither for small scale (irrigation scheduling of crops) nor for large scales (catchments and forests water use estimations). This issue creates a big problem for water footprint, water balance and evapotranspiration estimations that affect growers, irrigation practitioners, catchment water modelling and government policy. Our research has helped to characterise the dynamics of night-time transpiration and water rehydration of plants to obtain amelioration strategies for crops to maximise water use efficiency under a challenging climate.

Figures below: Parabolic relationships found when comparing night-time water uptake by Almond trees (Sn) and tree water status measured as stem water potential (MPa). Figure 1 shows data taking the averaged values between probes located in the North-East and South West and Figure 2 shows data separating these probes. This example demonstrate that for larger trees it is important to have more than 1 set of probes to account for sap flow variability according to weather conditions and soil moisture.

Figure 1

Fig 3a

Figure 2

Fig 3b

Winetech

WORKSHOP: New and Emerging Technologies for your Vineyard

Convenors: Dr Sigfredo Fuentes and Dr Roberta De Bei

Many people think that the ‘I, Robot’ vision from Isaac Asimov is not too far away from reality.

We have seen everyday more and more media coverage of the use of drones and robotic

technology for research in viticulture and agriculture in general. Automated systems can carry

instrumentation that enables the acquisition and analysis of data using contact, short and

long range remote sensing techniques. This workshop will explore the state of the art of

instrumentation and research to implement these systems in viticulture and winemaking.

Some of the technologies and instrumentation that will be covered range in applications from

the field to the cellar. The structure of this workshop will be in the soil – plant – atmosphere

context.

COST: AUD$ 150

WEB LINK: http://awitc.com.au

The following papers will be presented at the IX International Symposium on Grapevine Physiology and Biotechnology to be held in La Serena – Chile from the 21st to the 26th of April 2013. These papers are a common effort from The Vineyard of the Future members from Australia, Spain and Chile.

1) Using Infrared Thermal Images To Detect Smoke Contamination For Different Grapevine Cultivars. 

S. Fuentes, R. De Bei, K. Wilkinson, R Ristic and S.D. Tyerman

Link to abstract: IR smoke

2) Infrared Thermal Images Of Grapevines: From Manual to Complete Automated Analysis.

C. Poblete-Echeverria, S. Fuentes, R. De Bei, MP Diago , S. Ortega-Farias and J. Tardaguila

Link to abstract: IR analysis

3) Using smartphones and tablet PCs for canopy architecture assessment to upscale physiological parameters: LAICanopy© App. 

 S. Fuentes, R. De Bei and S.D. Tyerman.

Link to abstract: AppLAI

“Effect of elevated temperature on the onset and rate of mesocarp cell death in berries of Shiraz and Chardonnay and its relationship with berry shrivel” 

Authors:

Marcos Bondada (University of Adelaide – INTA Argentina); Victor Sadras (SARDI) and

Sigfredo Fuentes (University of Adelaide – University of Melbourne)

 

Journal:

Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research.

This paper show results of the effect of elevated temperature on the dynamics of berry cell death and shrivel for two varieties: Shiraz and Chardonnay.

These two varieties have contrasting dynamics of berry cell death and shrivel. The first can reach important levels of Shrivel at harvest with moderate mesocarp cell death in berries, while Chardonnay reaches high levels of cell death with minimal shrivelling symptoms.

Figure 1: Differences between Shiraz and Chardonnay in cell death and shrivel. Bright sections of the mesocarp corresponds to living tissue and dark areas to dead tissue. Images obtained using FDA stain (Fuentes et al. 2010).

Elevated temperature accelerated both mesocarp cell death and berry shrivelling in Shiraz and accelerated mesocarp cell death but had no impact on shrivel in Chardonnay. Mesocarp cell death seems necessary but not sufficient to explains berry shrivelling. Awareness of functional links between berry shrivel and mesocarp cell death, and the environmental modulation of these traits would likely contribute to management practices that could reduce the severity of shrivel in a context of warmer conditions.

Figure 2: Time-trajectory of mesocarp cell death. for Shiraz berries in the study of Tilbrook and Tyerman (2008). The bilateral model fitted to the data (eq. 2) has three biologically relevant parameters:  (the onset of rapid cell death), b1 (slope before the onset) and b2 (slope after the onset).

Nocturnal transpiration currently corresponds to 15-50% of total water loss compared to diurnal transpiration, depending on the environmental conditions, for grapevines. This phenomenon could be exacerbated in a climate change scenario, which predicts that nocturnal temperatures will increase at a higher rate compared to diurnal temperatures (IPCC 2010). Since nocturnal transpiration is not associated to photosynthesis it contributes to reduce water use efficiency. This research area will be one of the main focuses of the VoF, which will aim to develop irrigation and management techniques to reduce transpiration and to maximise refill or night-time re-hydration.

The hypothesis that nocturnal transpiration will decrease as diurnal plant water stress increases was tested on the Tempranillo and 6 other cultivars in Mallorca – Spain. Recently, a paper describing results and conclusions from this study has been accepted for publication in the Agricultural Water Management Journal.

Escalona J., Fuentes S., Tomas M., Martorell S., Flexas J., Medrano H. 2012. Responses of leaf night respiration and transpiration to water stress in Vitis vinifera L. Agricultural Water Management (Accepted).